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Owen Scott
Owen Scott

Explore the Rich and Diverse Heritage of Madurai with this Tamil Pdf Book

Madurai History In Tamil Pdf Download


Madurai is one of the oldest and most culturally rich cities in India. It is located in the southern state of Tamil Nadu, on the banks of the Vaigai river. It has a history of more than 2500 years, dating back to the ancient Tamil Sangam literature. It is also known as the city of temples, especially for its famous Meenakshi Amman temple, which attracts millions of pilgrims and tourists every year.

Madurai History In Tamil Pdf Download


If you are interested in learning more about the history of Madurai, you can download a pdf book in Tamil language from this link. This book covers the various aspects of Madurai's history, from its origin to its present-day status. It is written by Dr. K. Rajan, a renowned historian and archaeologist, who has done extensive research on Madurai and its surroundings.

In this article, we will give you a brief overview of Madurai's history, divided into three main periods: ancient, medieval, and modern. We will also highlight some of the important events, personalities, and monuments that shaped Madurai's history.

Madurai in ancient times

The legend of Madurai and the Meenakshi temple

According to Hindu mythology, Madurai was founded by Lord Shiva himself, who performed 64 miracles or wonders (Thiruvilayadal) in this city. One of these miracles was the marriage of Shiva and Parvati, who took the form of Meenakshi (the fish-eyed goddess) and Sundareswarar (the handsome lord) respectively. The Meenakshi temple, which is dedicated to this divine couple, is considered as one of the most sacred and beautiful temples in India.

The Meenakshi temple was originally built by King Kulasekara Pandya in the 6th century CE, but it was later expanded and renovated by various rulers over the centuries. The temple complex covers an area of 15 acres and has four towering gateways (gopurams), each adorned with thousands of colorful sculptures depicting gods, goddesses, animals, and mythical creatures. The temple also has a hall of thousand pillars (Aayiram Kaal Mandapam), a golden lotus pond (Potramarai Kulam), and a museum (Temple Art Museum).

The Sangam period and the Pandya kingdom

The Sangam period (300 BCE - 300 CE) was a golden age of Tamil literature and culture. It was named after the Sangam academies, where poets and scholars gathered to compose and exchange poems on various themes such as love, war, nature, ethics, etc. The Sangam literature consists of eight anthologies (Ettuthogai), ten idylls (Pattuppattu), eighteen minor works (Pathinenkilkanakku), and two epics (Silappathikaram and Manimekalai).

Madurai was the capital of the Pandya kingdom, one of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms along with the Cheras and the Cholas. The Pandyas were known for their patronage of arts, literature, trade, and religion. They had extensive contacts with other countries such as Rome, Greece, Egypt, China, etc. They also built many temples, tanks, palaces, and fortifications in Madurai and other parts of their realm.

The Kalabhras and the Pallavas invasions

After the Sangam age, Madurai faced a dark period of political instability and cultural decline. It was invaded by a mysterious tribe called the Kalabhras, who overthrew the Pandya kingdom and ruled for about three centuries (300 CE - 600 CE). The Kalabhras were said to be cruel and oppressive rulers who persecuted the Brahmins and the Buddhists. They also destroyed many temples and monuments built by the Pandyas.

The Kalabhras were eventually defeated by another powerful dynasty called the Pallavas, who emerged as the dominant force in south India. The Pallavas were great conquerors and builders who expanded their empire from Kanchipuram to Sri Lanka. They also promoted Hinduism, especially Shaivism and Vaishnavism, and patronized art, architecture, literature, music, dance, etc. They built many rock-cut caves, monolithic temples (rathas), sculptural panels (mandapas), and shore temples (Mahabalipuram) in their territory.

Madurai in medieval times

The Chola rule and the revival of the Pandyas

The Pallavas were succeeded by another mighty dynasty called the Cholas, who ruled over most of south India from Thanjavur for about four centuries (850 CE - 1279 CE). The Cholas were renowned for their military prowess, administrative efficiency, maritime trade, cultural achievements


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