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Siegfried Morozov
Siegfried Morozov

Drug Today.pdf


Drugs, Habits and Social Policy journal is committed to bringing together research on the cultural, social and material contexts of drug use, policy, and professional practices. Previously published as Drugs and Alcohol Today (ISSN: 1745-9265).




Drug Today.pdf



Drugs, Habits and Social Policy (DHS) is a quarterly, international, peer-reviewed journal publishing research and theoretical contributions in the field of drug use and policy. The journal provides a platform for the dissemination of the current social drug policy research and seeks to stimulate critical debates about social, health and political consequences and contexts of drug use.


DHSP aims to highlight cultural, social and material contexts of drug use, policy, and professional practices. We welcome submissions that highlight the lived experiences of people who use drugs and engage with evidence of harm reduction. National and international policy frameworks developed to control the production, distribution and use of psychoactive substances, both legal and illegal, are of particular interest. The journal aims to contribute to the critical debate on the international drug control regime, the dominant problematisation and medicalisation of drug use and the criminalisation of people who use drugs. In this mission, we also welcome practitioner papers that specifically address professionals and users engaged in drug services and the development of harm reduction initiatives on global and local scales.


DHSP is committed to the use of sensitive and inclusive language and encourages submissions that are critical of disease-informed models of drug use. It is our aim to provide a platform for open and mindful reflections in high-quality research about drugs from across the world. DHSP welcomes original research articles using qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods designs, practitioner papers, policy papers, brief study reports and commentaries.


All submissions are subject to a double-blind peer-review process and are made accessible and relevant to a wide and varied audience, including scientific community, policy makers and practitioners. Regular and special issues include commentary and papers on the newest developments in social drug research. We also welcome viewpoint commentaries on ongoing political changes for a publication on our related blog.


Multum leaflets provide basic consumer drug information, such as drug descriptions and interactions, details of possible side effects and the effects of missed doses and overdosing, as well as instructions for use. The leaflets are available in English and Spanish.


IBM Watson Micromedex Advanced Consumer Information provides comprehensive consumer information pertaining to a wide variety of drugs, such as a list of commonly used brand names, drug descriptions, warnings and precautions, and detailed information on the proper use of each drug.


AHFS DI from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) is the most comprehensive source of unbiased and authoritative drug information available to health professionals today. A wholly independent staff of drug information pharmacists and other professional editorial and analytical staff thoroughly research AHFS DI content. Authors incorporate clinical research findings, therapeutic guidelines, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved labeling to ensure that monographs include an evidence-based foundation for safe and effective drug therapy.


The Natural Product Information (Consumer) database is a comprehensive source of information on traditional and/or conventional uses of natural products. A basic overview of each product is provided (including dosages, possible drug interactions, side effects and contraindications) along with safety and/or efficacy ratings.


The natural product information (professional) database is a comprehensive source of information on traditional and/or conventional uses of natural products. A basic overview of each product is provided (including dosages, possible drug interactions, side effects and contraindications) along with safety and/or efficacy ratings.


According to the report, around 284 million people aged 15-64 used drugs worldwide in 2020, a 26 per cent increase over the previous decade. Young people are using more drugs, with use levels today in many countries higher than with the previous generation. In Africa and Latin America, people under 35 represent the majority of people being treated for drug use disorders.


Globally, the report estimates that 11.2 million people worldwide were injecting drugs. Around half of this number were living with hepatitis C, 1.4 million were living with HIV, and 1.2 million were living with both.


The report further emphasizes the importance of galvanizing the international community, governments, civil society and all stakeholders to take urgent action to protect people, including by strengthening drug use prevention and treatment and by tackling illicit drug supply.


In many countries in Africa and South and Central America, the largest proportion of people in treatment for drug use disorders are there primarily for cannabis use disorders. In Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and in Central Asia, people are most often in treatment for opioid use disorders.


In the United States and Canada, overdose deaths, predominantly driven by an epidemic of the non-medical use of fentanyl, continue to break records. Preliminary estimates in the United States point to more than 107,000 drug overdose deaths in 2021, up from nearly 92,000 in 2020.


Information from the Middle East and South-East Asia suggest that conflict situations can act as a magnet for the manufacture of synthetic drugs, which can be produced anywhere. This effect may be greater when the conflict area is close to large consumer markets.


Historically, parties to conflict have used drugs to finance conflict and generate income. The 2022 World Drug Report also reveals that conflicts may also disrupt and shift drug trafficking routes, as has happened in the Balkans and more recently in Ukraine.


Illicit drug markets, according to the 2022 World Drug Report, can have local, community or individual-level impacts on the environment. Key findings include that the carbon footprint of indoor cannabis is between 16 and 100 times more than outdoor cannabis on average and that the footprint of 1 kilogram of cocaine is 30 times greater than that of cocoa beans.


Other environmental impacts include substantial deforestation associated with illicit coca cultivation, waste generated during synthetic drug manufacture that can be 5-30 times the volume of the end product, and the dumping of waste which can affecting soil, water and air directly, as well as organisms, animals and the food chain indirectly.


Women remain in the minority of drug users globally yet tend to increase their rate of drug consumption and progress to drug use disorders more rapidly than men do. Women now represent an estimated 45-49 per cent of users of amphetamines and non-medical users of pharmaceutical stimulants, pharmaceutical opioids, sedatives, and tranquilizers.


The World Drug Report 2022 also spotlights the wide range of roles fulfilled by women in the global cocaine economy, including cultivating coca, transporting small quantities of drugs, selling to consumers, and smuggling into prisons.


The PDL is a medication list recommended to DOM by the P&T Committee and approved by the executive director of DOM. Drugs designated as preferred have been selected for their efficaciousness, clinical significance, cost effectiveness and safety for Medicaid beneficiaries. The PDL addresses certain drug classes:


Almost 50% of Americans take at least one prescription drug. Only half of these patients take their medication correctly and many patients who receive drug prescriptions fail to fill them. Good medication adherence can prevent strokes, heart attacks, renal failure and other complications from poorly controlled diseases. Poor adherence, especially in patients with chronic illnesses, such as diabetes and heart disease, is associated with increased risk of hospitalization and death.


Doravirine is a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on August 30, 2018, for the treatment of HIV infection in adult patients. The product was also approved in the E.U. and Japan in November 2018 and January 2020, respectively. It is currently available as a single stand-alone tablet as well as part of a single-tablet regimen in a fixed-dose combination with tenofovir disoproxil and lamivudine. Similarly to other NNRTIs, doravirine exerts its antiviral effect through a noncompetitive inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It has a novel resistance pathway so that it retains in vitro activity against clinically relevant NNRTI viral mutations K103N, Y181C and G190A. In randomized clinical trials, doravirine was noninferior to efavirenz- and darunavir-based regimens, with fewer adverse events. Doravirine has a more favorable drug interaction profile compared with earlier NNRTIs as it neither inhibits nor induces the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme. Doravirine has been added to the category of Recommended Initial Regimens in Certain Clinical Situations in the United States Department of Health and Human Services Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents.


Memantine is believed to work by regulating glutamate, an important brain chemical. When produced in excessive amounts, glutamate may lead to brain cell death. Because NMDA antagonists work differently from cholinesterase inhibitors, the two types of drugs can be prescribed in combination.


Anti-anxiety drugs are used to treat agitation. These drugs can cause sleepiness, dizziness, falls, and confusion. For this reason, doctors recommend they should only be used for short periods of time.


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